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Family: Picornaviridae
Genus: Rhinovirus

Disease caused by virus


Rhinovirus is one of the viruses that causes the common cold.
Description of virus structure
Rhinoviruses are composed of a capsid that contains four viral proteins. It can be described as a non-enveloped, single-stranded virus with RNA genomes. It is spherical in shape, 28-30 nm in diameter, and attaches to the folds in the mucous membranes of the nose.


 How is the virus transmitted?
Transmission of the rhinovirus occurs in a few ways; from touching infected surfaces and then touching your nose or eyes, from direct contact, or from affected air particles. The rhinovirus attaches to respiratory epithelium.
How can transmission be prevented?
There are several way that transmission of rhinovirus can be prevented. Frequent hand-washing, keeping hands away from your face, limiting exposure to other people, practicing healthy habits, and using disinfectants can all help.
Type of body cells attacked
Rhinovirus enters through the upper respiratory tract. The virus then binds to the respiratory epithelia cells. This virus multiples successfully only in tissues that are slightly bleow normal body temperatures (33-35 Celcius)
Symptoms of Infection
The symptoms of rhinovirus usually begin 2-3 days after infection. They include; mucus buildup in the nose, difficulty breathing through nose, sneezing, swelling of sinuses, sore throat, cough, and headache. Fever is usually slight but can go up to 102 Fahrenheit in children and infants. A rhinovirus infection rarely causes serious problems.
How does the body defend itself?
The immune system contains a variety of natural substances called inflammatory mediators. They help protect the body from infection and other harmful events. Some inflammatory mediators are released when nasal cells are infected by a cold virus. This is what leads to the symptoms of a cold.
Currently there are no vaccines against rhinovirus because there are too many kinds of viruses that cause the common cold. However, there are several ways to relieve the symptoms caused by this infection. By drinking plenty of fluids, staying in bed, taking the common cold medicine, and using a humidifier, it will help alleviate the symptoms.
Interesting Facts
-Rhinovirus is shed in large amounts, with as many as 1 million infectious virions per mL of nasal secretion.
-Rhinovirus comes the Greek name rhin which means “nose”.  
-Despite all the stories, not wearing a jacket when it’s chilly, or going out with your hair wet do not cause colds.
-People who smoke are more likely to catch a cold than people who don’t. Their symptoms will probably be worse, last longer, and are more likely to lead to bronchitis or even pneumonia.
-There are roughly 100 known serotypes of rhinoviruses, each different enough to require 100 different vaccines to protect against them all. As a result, most researchers have given up on finding a vaccine to prevent the common cold.
By: Angela Chen
Block: C

Scientific Name: Human rhinovirus (A or B)
Disease or Disorder Caused By Virus: Rhinovirus causes the common cold.
Description of virus structure: The virus is composed of a capsid (shell) that contains 4 viral protiens: VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4.
                                         Also described as a single stranded positive sense RNA genomes between 7.2-8.5 kilobases.
*couldn't get picture up
Virus Transmission: By aerosols of repiratory droplets (ex. sneezing) & contact with contaminated surfaces.
Transmission Prevention: Always wash your hands after touching environmental surfaces. If you have the virus, avoid having close contact with others.
Body Cells Attacked: The virus attacks you respiratory tract or your nose.
Symptoms: Sore throat, nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing, coughing. Muscle aches, headaches, loss of appetite etc.
Body Defence: As the virus spreads, the infected cells release distress signals for help.
Treatments/Vaccines: There are no vaccines against this virus. But taking cold medicines may relieve you of symptoms.
5 Interesting Facts: 1) Rhinovirus is one of more than 200 viruses to cause the common cold.
                            2) This virus if most active in the early fall, spring and summer
                            3) It can live up to 3 hours on your skin and different surfaces.
                            4) 'Rhin' is Greek for 'nose'
                            5) The virus can adhere to surface receptors within 15 minutes of entering the respiratory tract.
By Chloe Wong
Block: D

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